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Gemstones of Turkey


Prof. Dr. M. Sezai KIRIKOGLU

Istanbul Technical University




The map and the information about Turkey's gemstones are from Prof. Dr. S. Kırıkoğlu's work and used here with his permission.  His article has a lot of information.  I did not translate his article word by word.  If you need to learn more  please let me know your specific question.

The original name of the places sometimes have different fonts, you may need to download Turkish language fonts.  

The crystals of Turkish gems are from my collection and photos were taking by me unless otherwise stated. 


Fig. 1; Gemstones and their locations.

1. Bursa, Harmancık, Akpınar village

2. Bursa, Kestelek; borate, colemanite

3.  Balıkesir, Dursunbey, Güğü village

4.  Balıkesir, Eğmir; hematit

5.  Balıkesir, Bigadiç; borate, colemanite

6.  Balıkesir, Kepsut, Karagözköy

7.  Balıkesir, Gönen, Alacaoluk and   

Beyoluk; beryl

8.  Kütahya, Simav, Karamanca county;  fire opal

9.  Kütahya, Tavşanlı

10. Kütahya, Dereyalak village; dendritic  agate

11. Kütahya, Dağardı, İmnehler village

12. Eskişehir, Sarıcakaya; blue chalcedony

13. Eskişehir, İnenü; dendritic agate

14. Eskişehir, Yunus Emre; onyx marble

15. Muğla, Milas, Selimiye village; diaspore

16. Muğla, Yatağan; kyanite

17. Ankara, Çubuk; Çubuk agate

18. Ankara, Bala; gipsrose

19. Ankara, Hayman; tree agate

20. Ankara, Beypazar; chalcedony

21. Istanbul, Beylikdüzü, Kavaklı village; tree agate

22. Istanbul, Kartal; amethyst

23. Aydın, Çine; moonstone feldspar and  quartz crystal

24. Aydın, Çine, Mersinbelen village;  quartz crystal

25. Kırşehir, Çiçekdağ;  beryl, 

tourmaline,  chrysoberyl

26. Sivas, Akkaya; selestite

27. Sivas, Kangal

28. Çankırı;

29. Çanakkale, Biga; chrysoprase

30. Kars; obsidien

31. Yozgat, Sorgun; beryl, tourmaline

32. Yozgat, Sefaatli; beryl, tourmaline

33. Erzurum, Oltu; jet

34. Erzincan, Kopdağ; kemearerite

35. İzmir, Aliağa; chalcedony

36. İzmir, Güzelbahçe; agate, chalcedony

37. Manisa, Kovancı; rutil

38. Manisa, Demirci; rutil, quartz crystal

39. Manisa, Akhisar; rutil, garnet, 

 quartz  crystal

40. Manisa, Akhisar; rutil, garnet, quartz crystal

41. Elazığ, Keban; fluorite

42. Malatya;

43. Kocaeli, Gebze, Yağcılar village;

44. Sinop,  Boyabat,  Kırka  village;   


45. Afyon, Bayat; agate

46. Bilecik, Söğüt; agate, chalcedony

47. Tokat, Gülpınar village; onyx marble

48. Van; carnelian



In Anatolia gemstones have been known and used in various forms of jewellery for the past 5000 years. Although there is such a long history there aren't very many scientific works of Turkish gemstones.  Dr. M. Sezai Kırıkoğlu studies country's gemstones.

Below you will find a summary of excerpts from his work  "Gemstones of Turkey".  As a results of research conducted in Turkey in recent years you can find the full list of gemstones and their locations in Fig.1.

Production in these locations is undertaken by the inhabitants. Professional collectors buy these stones and sell them in manufacturing centers like Istanbul, Ankara and Idar-Oberstein in Germany.

Significant stones produced in Turkey are diaspore, Çubuk agate, agate, dendiritic agate, blue chalcedony, obsidien, crystal quartz, garnet, lavender jade, meersdhaum (sepiolite). 




Fig.2;  Diaspore

Photo by M. Yüceer



In Milas county of Muğla diaspore is found as clear and large crystals.(Fig.2).  Diaspore's chemical composition is AIO(OH). Its crystal habit is orthorombic, hardness is 6.5-7. It is transparent with colours of yellow, greenish yellow and pinkish yellow. Some stones when contains Mn is red. It resembles alexandrite with a colour change effect. In daylight its colour appears greenish yellow while in incandescent light or at night it is pink.

RI; 1.702 -1.750, SG; 3.394

Good quality 15-20 cm crystals are beeing sold for $3000, and good cut stones sell for  $400/ct. 




Fig.3; Çubuk agate

Photo by M. Yüceer


Çubuk agate 

This very rare stone is found only in Çubuk near Ankara, Turkey (Fig.3). The stone shows different band widhts with different colours. Tones of red, brown, yellow, green and gray are the colours you can see. Stick-like minerals and colour bands sometimes produce beautiful motives which from the stone gets its name like; landscape agate, picture agate, eye agate.

Its chemical formula is SiO2 + SiO2 n H2O, hardness; 6.5 - 7, SG; 2.58 - 2.65.





Fig.4; Tree agate

Photo by M. Yüceer

Fig. 5; Tree agate

Photo by M. Yüceer


Tree agate 

This is  fossilized tree which can be found around Kızılcahamam and Haymana near Ankara, Tunçbilek in Kütahya and Beylikdüzü and Silivri in Istanbul.  Its hardness is 7 and chemical folmula is SiO2 + SiO2 n H2O. The trees'  roots, branches and trunk all could become like stone and everything is preserved as it is. The trace elements give the stone different colours. Whitish-gray, yellow, brown, green and red. Mostly it is semi transparent or opaque. 





Fig. 6; dendritic agate (see photos below)

Photo by M. Yüceer 

Dendritic agate


The bands of this agate sometimes are filled with opals and for this reason sometimes this agate is called dendiritic opal. They are found in Inönü county of Eskişehir  and in the north  of  Kütahya.   Chemical  formula  for  dendritic agate is SiO2 + SiO2 n H2O, hardness of  6.5 - 7,  SG 2.57 - 2.64. 

The beautiful colours depend on the trace elements. Transparent, white, yellow, green, red, brown and black colours are the most occurant colours. 

Please see fig. 6 and 9 and 17.





Fig. 7; blue chalcedony


Blue chalcedony

When blue chalcedony is mentioned one thinks of Sarıcakaya of Eskişehir. Blue chalcedony of Turkey is unmatchable. Its colour is all the tones of blue. Rarely, yellow,  brown and red spots are seen.  It  is translucent.   Its hardness is 7.5 - 8.5. It is very good for cabochon cut, faceting, carving and all kinds of jewellery and decoration objects. Many foreign designers won awards with the designs where they used blue chalcedony of Turkey. 

Good quality blue chalcedony stones are sold from $100/kg. The cabochons and faceted stones sell for $50/ct. (Fig. 7)




Various chalcedony stones from my collection

. . .

Fig. 8

Fig. 9

Photo by M.  Yüceer

Fig. 10; Beautiful pink colour

. . .
. . .

Fig. 11

Fig. 12;   12cm X 8cm

Fig.13;   19cm X 13cm 

. . .




Fig.14; Carnelian

Photo by M. Yüceer

Fig.15 Smoky quartz

Fig.16; This stone gives an

RI reading and SG of opal



Fig. 17; Nice examples of dendritic opals. The one at the left has translucent gray centre and the one at the right has pink.


Fig. 18; Rock quartz crystal





Fig 9; Jet


Oltu stone 

It is used in Erzurum area very much in all kinds of jewellery. 

It is a kind of fossilized wood, Jet. Chemical composition is carbonaceous. 

Its hardness 2.5-4. RI; 1.66, SG; 1.3. 





Fig20; Kamaererite









Fig 21; Opals